History of End User Programming


In the 1960s Dartmouth BASIC programming language [7] was designed and implemented at Dartmouth College by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz. Over time, BASIC became a popular language for home and business use, leading many people into programming as a hobby or profession. Many of the modern concepts of computer graphics, dynamic objects, and object-oriented programming were prototyped by Ivan Sutherland in Sketchpad in 1963 [13][14]. In the mid-1960s, Seymour Papert, a mathematician who had worked at Piaget in Geneva, came to the United States, where he co-founded MIT’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory with Marvin Minsky. Papert worked with the team of Bolt, Beranek, and Newman, led by Wallace Feurzeich, who created the first version of Logo [25] 1967. In the late sixties Alan Kay [2][3][17] used the term “personal computer” and created a concept prototype, the FLEX machine, he also envisioned a “Dynabook” machine, the sketches of which look very similar to the laptop computers of recent years. The Simula [28] Language was developed by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard and included object-oriented concepts. Douglas Engelbert has been working on a project to expand the human intellect as part of Augment [8] Project he demonstrates hypertext and video conferencing.


Alan Kay joined the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). [17][19] California in 1971. In the 1970’s, PARC’s group led by Dr. Kay an integrated programming language and programming environment called Smalltalk [10]. In the early 1970s, the personal computer Alto was developed at PARC. The Alto eventually featured the world’s first WYSIWYG (What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get) editor, a commercial mouse for input, a graphical user interface (GUI) and bitmap display, and menus and icons , and connected to a local network. The Alto formed the basis for Xerox’s STAR 8010 information system. There was still a need to find a general use for a personal computer that would increase demand for it. In 1978, Harvard Business School student Daniel Bricklin came up with the idea for an interactive visible calculator. Bricklin and Bob Frankston then jointly invented the VisiCalc software program [1]. VisiCalc was a spreadsheet and the first “killer” application for PCs because this application provided a justification for using PCs as a productive tool.


In the 1980s, personal computer ownership became more popular and many home users programmed using BASIC. In the early 1980’s, IBM developed the first personal computer built from off-the-shelf parts (called an open architecture). [15]. These included a command-line operating system written by Microsoft and the Microsoft BASIC programming language. Apple has further developed the GUI for the Lisa [5] this later became the Macintosh (Mac). The IBM-style PC became most popular for business applications, while the Apple Mac was widely used for desktop publishing.


Research on end-user programming continues to this day. Research continued in visual programming techniques [9] e.g. Alice [4]Programming by example [2][21]Programming with automatic support [20]and natural language programming [27]. Squeak and croquet[6] have evolved from the early works in Smalltalk.

Tim Berners-Lee [23] developed HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and participated in the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). [29] in the development of standard base languages ​​for the web. This has fueled the growth of the “Semantic Web”. [11] enabling both humans and computers to browse and interact with more sites, fueling the development of interactive websites and communities.


Recent, current and future research may enable the use of Semantic Web technologies (developed from HTML by Tim Berners-Lee). [23] and others) to enable end-user programming. This merging of research and technology is illustrated on Henry Lieberman’s home page [12] which contains explanations for both research areas. Examples of this fusion are Protégé [22]Jena [16]TopBraid composer [24]and OpenCyc [18]. Information about these technologies can be found on my semantic webpage – http://www.cems.uwe.ac.uk/amrc/seeds/PeterHale/RDF/RDF.htm. A related development is that of Web 2.0. Visual development environments based on AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript And XML) [26] Aim to replicate the functionality of Office tools such as Excel (which is often used as an end-user programming environment) on the web. For information about Ajax and Web 2.0 see my Ajax/web2.0 page – http://www.cems.uwe.ac.uk/amrc/seeds/Ajax/ajax.htm.


1. A Brief History of Spreadsheets – – Decision Support System Resources – by DJ Power, Editor, DSSResources.COM.

2. Alan Kay – – See what I do – Programming by example.

3. Alan Kay ETech 2003 Presentation – – Lisa Rein’s tour of Alan Kay’s Etech 2003 presentation.

4. Alice v2.0 – – Learn to program interactive 3D graphics.

5. Apple Lisa – – The first affordable GUI – Lisa 1 Jan 83 Jan 84, Lisa 2 Jan 84 Apr 85.

6. Croquet – – a new open-source software platform for building intensely collaborative multi-user online applications.

7. Dartmouth BASIC – -Wikipedia.

8. The Demo – – Stanford University.

9. Dmoz Open Directory Project – – Visual Languages ​​- Programming Languages ​​Reference – Visual Languages.

10. The Early History of Small Talk by Alan Kay – – 1967-69 – The FLEX machine, a first attempt at an OOP-based personal computer – Alan Kay – Smalltalk.org.

11. Fifteen Years Web – – Internet Timeline – BBC Technology.

12. Henry Lieberman – – Research Scientist – MIT Media Laboratory.

13. History of HCI – – Key Systems, People and Ideas – Presentation by Matthias Rauterberg.

14. History of HCI – Sketchpad (1963) – /sld020.htm – Ivan Sutherland – MIT Lab – Presentation by Matthias Rauterberg.

15. Inventor of the modern computer – -The history of the IBM PC – International Business Machines.

16. Jena -[-FirstJenaerUserConference-ConferenceProceedings[-FirstJenaUserConference-Proceedings[-ErsteJenaerNutzerkonferenz-Tagungsband[-FirstJenaUserConference-Proceedings

17. Kyoto Prize Laureate 2004 -[-KyotoPrizeLaureate2004-DrAlanCurtisKay(USAborn1940)-ComputerScientistPresidentViewpointsResearchInstitute[-2004KyotoPrizeLaureates-DrAlanCurtisKay(USAborn1940)-ComputerScientistPresidentViewpointsResearchInstitute[-Kyoto-Preisträger2004-DrAlanCurtisKay(USAgeb1940)-InformatikerPräsidentViewpointsResearchInstitute[-2004KyotoPrizeLaureates-DrAlanCurtisKay(USAb1940)-ComputerScientistPresidentViewpointsResearchInstitute

18. OpenCyc – OpenCyc.org – General Knowledge Base and Reasonable Thinking Engine.

19. Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) – History -[-PARC-History[-PARCHistory[-PARC-Geschichte[-PARCHistory

20. The Programmer’s Apprentice – – The ACM digital library.

21. Programming by example – PBE/index.html.

22. Protégé – – Protégé Home – ontology development environment.

23. Tim Berners -[-TimBerners-Lee[-TimBerners-Lee[-TimBerners-Lee[-TimBerners-Lee

24. Top Braid – – Semantic Modeling Toolset – Visual modeling environment.

25. What is a logo? – – MIT Logo Foundation, What is Logo.

26. Wikipedia- – Ajax (programming).

27. Wikipedia- – Natural language processing.

28. Simulation – – Simulation.

29th World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) – – Guide the web to its full potential….

Thanks to Peter Hale | #History #User #Programming

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