In recent years, a debate has developed about which approaches to structuring, planning and delivering instruction are more effective. Theorists and practitioners constantly argue about how language acquisition occurs and how best to facilitate it. Many approaches and methods have been developed that have had a significant impact on language teaching, although many of these methods are rarely used exclusively in the classroom.
The approaches used in the classroom are usually determined by the needs, goals and learning styles of the students. For example, a beginner may have an immediate need to communicate basic needs of everyday life. For this student, a communicative approach may be most helpful. A student who speaks well but has difficulty reading and writing may need a different approach. It is most common for the ESL teacher to use an eclectic approach, which is a combination of structural or communicative approaches to meet the needs of all students. We will now look at some of the more traditional and popular approaches to teaching methodology.
Presentation, Practice and Production (PPP)
During an initial teacher education course, most teachers are introduced to the PPP paradigm. A PPP lesson would go like this:
• First, the teacher presents a linguistic element in a clear context to convey its meaning. This can be done in different ways, either through a text, a situational account, a dialogue, etc.
• Students are then asked to complete a controlled practice phase during which they may need to repeat target elements through choral and individual practice, fill in gaps, or piece together halves of sentences. All of these exercises require the student to use the language correctly and help them become more comfortable with it.
• Finally, they move on to the production phase, sometimes referred to as the “free practice phase”. The students are given a communication task, e.g. a role-playing game, and they are expected to reflect the target language and use any other language that has already been learned and is suitable for editing.
Task-Based Learning (TBL)
Task-based learning offers an alternative to PPP for language teachers. In a task-based lesson, the teacher does not predetermine which language will be learned, the lesson is based on the completion of a central task, and the language learned is determined by what happens when the students complete it.
The communicative approach
The communicative approach to teaching emphasizes the importance of functional language as opposed to focusing on grammar and vocabulary. Learners are taught to use different forms of language in different contexts and situations, e.g. B. making a hotel reservation, buying plane tickets, ordering at a restaurant, booking tickets for a show, asking for directions, etc. It is this constant exposure to language in realistic situations that is intended to support language acquisition. Also, students are given a clear reason for communication in the form of role-plays and simulations. The accuracy of the language used is considered less important than successful communication.
During these communicative activities, the teacher does not intervene since the purpose of such activities is to simulate real communication. Although communicative activities by teachers are widespread, it is quite difficult to define exactly what a communicative approach is. This is because most teaching methods aim to improve communication regardless of the techniques used. The communicative approach is also seen to undermine students’ accuracy in striving for fluency. However, the communicative approach has been adopted in classrooms around the world and has made an invaluable contribution to the English teaching profession in many ways.
Thanks to Jason Geyser | #Popular #approaches #teaching #methodology